An essay on custer and the great controversy by robert m utley

In thus providing for the support of millions of civilized beings, they will not violate any dictate of justice or of humanity; for they will not only give to the few thousand savages scattered over that territory an ample equivalent for any right they may surrender, but will always leave them the possession of lands more than they can cultivate, and more than adequate to their subsistence, comfort, and enjoyment, by cultivation.

Land ownership brought a degree of independence as well as a vote for local and provincial offices. He charged Lewis and Clark to "explore the Missouri River, and such principal stream of it, as, by its course and communication with the waters of the Pacific Ocean; whether the Columbia, Oregon, Colorado or any other river may offer the most direct and practicable communication across the continent for the purposes of commerce".

It had a stratified society comprising a powerful upper-class white landowning gentry, a small middle-class, a fairly large group of landless or tenant white farmers, and a growing slave population at the bottom of the social pyramid.

By the s, however, the West was filling up with squatters who had no legal deed, although they may have paid money to previous settlers. Likewise, the Dutch set up fur trading posts in the Hudson River valley, followed by large grants of land to rich landowning patroons who brought in tenant farmers who created compact, permanent villages.

Army or the federal government. The typical frontier society therefore was one in which class distinctions were minimized. The United States, while intending never to acquire lands from the Indians otherwise than peaceably, and with their free consent, are fully determined, in that manner, progressively, and in proportion as their growing population may require, to reclaim from the state of nature, and to bring into cultivation every portion of the territory contained within their acknowledged boundaries.

They explained the American policy toward acquisition of Indian lands: Land policy[ edit ] The land policy of the new nation was conservative, paying special attention to the needs of the settled East.

American frontier

The great majority were landowners, most of whom were also poor because they were starting with little property and had not yet cleared much land nor had they acquired the farm tools and animals which would one day make them prosperous. The Wilderness Road was steep and rough, and it could only be traversed on foot or horseback, but it was the best route for thousands of settlers moving into Kentucky.

Although French fur traders ranged widely through the Great Lakes and mid-west region they seldom settled down. In the peace treaty ofFrance lost practically everything, as the lands west of the Mississippi river, in addition to Florida and New Orleans, went to Spain.

The wealthy speculator, if one was involved, usually remained at home, so that ordinarily no one of wealth was a resident. French settlement was limited to a few very small villages such as Kaskaskia, Illinois [8] as well as a larger settlement around New Orleans.

Pioneers housed themselves in a rough lean-to or at most a one-room log cabin. Daniel Boone escorting settlers through the Cumberland Gap In the colonial era, beforethe west was of high priority for settlers and politicians.

Lawrence Riverbuilding communities that remained stable for long stretches; they did not simply jump west the way the British did. After winning the Revolutionary WarAmerican settlers in large numbers poured into the west.

By contrast, Henry Clay was alarmed at the "lawless rabble" heading West who were undermining the utopian concept of a law-abiding, stable middle-class republican community. However frontier areas of that had good river connections were increasingly transformed into plantation agriculture.

However the Treaty of Fort Stanwix re-opened most of the western lands for frontiersmen to settle. All the rest were farmers.

Steady migration to frontier lands[ edit ] Regardless of wars Americans were moving across the Appalachians into western Pennsylvania, what is now West Virginia, and areas of the Ohio CountryKentucky and Tennessee.

The Jacksonian Democrats favored the squatters by promising rapid access to cheap land. It was later lengthened to reach the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville. The death in battle of the Indian leader Tecumseh dissolved the coalition of hostile Indian tribes.

Louis, Missouri was the largest town on the frontier, the gateway for travel westward, and a principal trading center for Mississippi River traffic and inland commerce but remained under Spanish control until The typical New England settlements were quite compact and small—under a square mile.

In general the frontiersmen battled the Indians with little help from the U. Map of the Wilderness Road by No Indians lived permanently in Kentucky [24] but they sent raiding parties to stop the newcomers.The American frontier comprises the geography, history, folklore, and cultural expression of life in the forward wave of American expansion that began with English colonial settlements in the early 17th century and ended with the admission of the last mainland territories as states in "Frontier" refers to a contrasting region at the edge of a.

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An essay on custer and the great controversy by robert m utley
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